Your thoughts don’t reflect your mind

Your thoughts don’t reflect your mind

The reason we know our own thoughts better than those of others is simply that we have more sensory data to draw on – not only perceptions of our own speech and behaviour, but also our emotional responses, bodily senses (pain, limb position, and so on), and a rich variety of mental imagery, including a steady stream of inner speech. (There is strong evidence that mental images involve the same brain mechanisms as perceptions and are processed like them.) Carruthers calls this the Interpretive Sensory-Access (ISA) theory, and he marshals a huge array of experimental evidence in support of it.

The ISA theory has some startling consequences. One is that (with limited exceptions), we do not have conscious thoughts or make conscious decisions. For, if we did, we would be aware of them directly, not through interpretation. The conscious events we undergo are all sensory states of some kind, and what we take to be conscious thoughts and decisions are really sensory images – in particular, episodes of inner speech. These images might express thoughts, but they need to be interpreted.

Another consequence is that we might be sincerely mistaken about our own beliefs. Return to my question about racial stereotypes. I guess you said you think they are false. But if the ISA theory is correct, you can’t be sure you think that. Studies show that people who sincerely say that racial stereotypes are false often continue to behave as if they are true when not paying attention to what they are doing. Such behaviour is usually said to manifest an implicit bias, which conflicts with the person’s explicit beliefs. But the ISA theory offers a simpler explanation. People think that the stereotypes are true but also that it is not acceptable to admit this and therefore say they are false. Moreover, they say this to themselves too, in inner speech, and mistakenly interpret themselves as believing it. They are hypocrites but not conscious hypocrites. Maybe we all are

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which perfectly syncs with my idea :

This has far reaching consequences for the premise of ‘free will’. Who has the free will, which consciousness we hold accountable. Or do we just hold the one accountable which can make itself heard even though in reality that consciousness actually hasn’t a clue why his body did what it did and has to concoct an explanation itself.

It also places emotions. Emotions are not ‘our’ emotions but the expression of the state of the other consciousness which for lack of further interaction the neocortex also has to determine via interpretative analysis.

Wind turbines on Galapagos replace millions of liters of diesel since 2007

Wind turbines on Galapagos replace millions of liters of diesel since 2007

But…

The release notes $10 million was spent on wind mills to save 2.3 million gallons of diesel. But the pump price for diesel in Ecuador is on the order of $0.29/gallon.

This means that $10 million was spent on windmills to save roughly $667,000 worth of diesel fuel. Such a bargain!

The media release is below.

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Wind turbines on Galapagos replace millions of liters of diesel since 2007, meet 30 percent of energy needs

World’s top utilities hand over project keys, chart path for Ecuador’s famously biodiverse archipelago to meet 70 percent of fast-rising energy needs with renewables

GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE ELECTRICITY PARTNERSHIP

CREDIT: EOLICSA

A global renewable energy project on the Galapagos Islands — one of Earth’s most fragile and important ecological treasures — has helped avoid many tanker loads worth of risky diesel fuel imports since 2007, reduced the archipelago’s greenhouse gas emissions and preserved critically endangered species.

Now, after eight successful years, the project’s new operators are pursuing an ambitious expansion that would multiply the benefits of renewable energy for this remote, precious archipelago with a growing appetite for electricity.

A performance summary and recommendations for the expansion are contained in a new report by the Global Sustainable Electricity Partnership (GSEP), a not-for-profit association of 11 of the world’s foremost electricity firms, which led and financed the $10 million project.

The project’s three 51-metre-tall wind turbines and two sets of solar panels have supplied, on average, 30% of the electricity consumed on San Cristóbal, the archipelago’s second-largest island in size and population, since it went into operation in October 2007.

During that time, it has displaced 8.7 million litres (2.3 million gallons) of diesel fuel and avoided 21,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions, the GSEP report states. The achievements have led to awards from Power Engineering Magazine, World Energy Forum, and Energy Globe.

The proposed expansion could boost the renewable energy share to 70 per cent, en route to a hoped-for elimination of fossil fuels, the report states. It could also be a template for energy development elsewhere in the Galapagos chain — where renewable sources now account for 20% of electricity production — and elsewhere around the world.

Says Marco Salao Bravo, Executive President of ELECGALÁPAGOS S.A., the local utility that has accepted full ownership of the project: “Our team shall continue working in the implementation of current and future renewable energy projects to convert the Galapagos into a zero fossil fuels territory.”

The Galapagos, an archipelago of 19 islands in the Pacific Ocean 1,000 kilometres off the coast of Ecuador, is home to an array of unique, exotic plant and animal species and famed as the site of Charles Darwin’s research of the evolution of species by natural selection.

Although most islands are uninhabited and protected from development, a few have growing populations, now 30,000 in all (up from 25,000 in 2010, with 33,000 forecast by 2020), economically supported by thriving tourism, which is capped at 200,000 annual visitors.

San Cristóbal, site of the provincial capital, is among the busiest islands with a bustling port and airport.

For decades, all of San Cristóbal’s electricity came from diesel-fuelled generating stations. That began to change in January 2001 when a tanker, the Jessica, struck a reef and spilled about 570,000 litres of diesel oil, threatening the irreplaceable heritage of plants, birds and marine life.

A fortuitous mix of wind and currents narrowly averted an environmental catastrophe, but the event launched an international effort to reduce San Cristóbal’s dependence on diesel fuel to generate electricity.

Centrepiece of the international response: The US $10 million San Cristóbal Wind Project, a public-private partnership between the Government of Ecuador, the UN Development Programme and the GSEP, with member companies American Electric Power and Germany’s RWE AG taking a lead role.

The funds went into a trust, which created an independent company, Eólica San Cristóbal S.A. – EOLICSA, to own and operate the project. On March 31, EOLICSA transferred ownership and control to the local utility, ELECGALÁPAGOS S.A.

Each of the three turbines, designed to operate at a very low wind speed, has a capacity of 800 kilowatts. Over the first eight years, they have functioned a remarkable 92% of the time, and produced more than 26 million kilowatt-hours of electricity.

The project also includes two six-kilowatt solar installations that have generated 136,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity, as well as new transmission lines and advanced control systems that let the renewable and diesel components work together efficiently.

The project also boasts several environmental successes.

Its license requires it to follow an Environmental Management Plan, a set of measures to protect unique bird populations, in particular the Galapagos petrel, which exists only on the archipelago and is listed as “critically endangered” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

The turbines were erected on a hill known as El Tropezón, an agricultural area distant from petrel nesting sites, and where there is little Galapagos Miconia, an endangered plant. In addition, the first three kilometres of a new 12-kilometre transmission line were buried to avoid interfering with Petrel flights between their nesting grounds and the sea, where they spend daylight hours fishing.

Also included is an effort, using poison, to reduce populations of invasive rats and feral cats, which arrived on the islands via visiting ships, and which eat petrel eggs and chicks. Furthermore, machetes are used to remove invasive plants, such as blackberry and guava, which crowd out the miconia and impair the nesting habitat.

The results: No petrels are known to have been injured during the eight years of wind turbine operations and nest monitoring reveals the pest controls are working. From 2012 to 2014, hatching success rates increased from 85 to 96%, reproductive success grew from 81 to 100%, and the petrel population appears to be growing.

There have, however, been challenges for the project over the first several years:

On the financial side, the price charged for electricity is fixed at a relatively low US $0.1282 per kilowatt-hour. As well, depressed global oil prices undermined Ecuador’s economy, causing ripples affecting the project.

The project is eligible to participate in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), created under the Kyoto Protocol climate change treaty. The CDM set up a market for Certified Emission Reduction certificates (CERs), each equivalent to one tonne of carbon dioxide emissions, which can be sold by countries that are below their emission targets to those that exceed them. The project sold 11,000 CERs, for a total of US $110,000, during its first four years, but because of low prices it has not participated in the market since then.

ELECGALÁPAGOS forecasts that, despite energy-conservation programs, electricity demand will rise by 60% from now to 2024, on top of a 275% increase realized since 2003. Consumption is spurred by the rising population, a new hospital and hotel, and other factors. A national attempt to reduce the use of fossil fuels through a shift from ovens fuelled by liquefied petroleum gas to electric induction models will add about 1.3 megawatts to annual demand on San Cristóbal.

Winds vary widely daily and from season to season, leading to large variations in renewable production.

The current low oil price has forced Ecuador’s government to reduce spending on all programs.

The report concludes that, with respect to energy on San Cristóbal, “a renewable penetration rate of at least 70 per cent may be achieved within a reasonable investment range.” And it offers a four-step plan:

Overhaul and fully automate the controls that mesh diesel and wind generation
Install more solar photovoltaic capacity
Add a fourth wind turbine unit at the existing wind park at El Tropezón hill
Install batteries to store electricity generated when winds are strong for dispatch when they are low. The project currently has no storage.
Adding enough storage capacity to make a significant impact would be expensive, says Luis Vintimilla, General Manager of Eólica San Cristóbal S.A., and precise cost estimates will be included in the upcoming feasibility study.

However, he adds, with support commensurate to the international value of the Galapagos, 70% energy from renewable sources is feasible in the intermediate term en route to the ultimate goal of zero fossil fuel use.

GSEP has agreed to fund an evaluation, led by German utility RWE, of a phase 2 expansion of the project involving the organization. RWE will assess the feasibility of options to further increase the share of renewables on San Cristobal and to deploy innovative energy solutions such as advanced integrated technology portfolios consisting of wind, solar PV and battery storage.

Source

No Bloomberg, Germany Did Not Get All Its Power From Renewables

No Bloomberg, Germany Did Not Get All Its Power From Renewables

Events like this highlight that eventually we may need to start curtailing because of market-wide oversupply,” said Monne Depraetere, an analyst for Bloomberg New Energy Finance. “In the long-run, that may provide a case to build technologies that can manage this oversupply — for example more interconnectors or energy storage.”

Renewables were only able to meet demand because of Germany’s strong export capability, the analyst said. Even when solar and wind peaked, conventional power plants were still supplying 7.7 gigawatts.

Merkel’s unprecedented shift to clean energy has squeezed margins at coal and gas plants while driving up costs for consumers in Europe’s biggest power market. The increased flows of clean energy have also put pressure on the grid to the point that the country is considering excluding certain regions from future onshore wind power auctions if local grids are already struggling to keep up with large volumes of renewable energy supplies.

“If Germany was an island, with no export cables, this would be technically impossible because you always need to have some thermal generation running as a back up supply for when the wind or solar drops off,” Depraetere said.

NOT A LOT OF PEOPLE KNOW THAT

By Paul Homewood

h/t Stewgreen

image

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-05-16/germany-just-got-almost-all-of-its-power-from-renewable-energy

Bloomberg ran this headline last week:

  • Wind, solar, biomass and hydro met demand on Sunday afternoon

  • Angela Merkel’s Energiewende is squeezing coal and gas margins

Clean power supplied almost all of Germany’s power demand for the first time on Sunday, marking a milestone for Chancellor Angela Merkel’s “Energiewende” policy to boost renewables while phasing out nuclear and fossil fuels.

Solar and wind power peaked at 2 p.m. local time on Sunday, allowing renewables to supply 45.5 gigawatts as demand was 45.8 gigawatts, according to provisional data by Agora Energiewende, a research institute in Berlin. Power prices turned negative during several 15-minute periods yesterday, dropping as low as minus 50 euros ($57) a megawatt-hour, according to data from Epex Spot.

image

Germany’s power supply by hour

Source: Agora Energiewende

Countries around Europe are building increasing amounts of renewable capacity in order to reduce their carbon emissions…

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Mass shootings victims and perpetrators are not Caucasian

Mass shootings victims and perpetrators are not Caucasian

The divide is racial as well. Among the cases examined by The Times were 39 domestic violence shootings, and they largely involved white attackers and victims. So did many of the high-profile massacres, including a wild shootout between Texas biker gangs that left nine people dead and 18 wounded.

Over all, though, nearly three-fourths of victims and suspected assailants whose race could be identified were black.

Continue reading the main story

I still don’t understand what ‘black’ means Is ‘Black’ a color or a concept and who gets in?
but clearly they do, regardless that none are actually black but mixed race. Even the so-called black president isn’t ‘black’ but just a multi-racial multi-ethnical  undefinable person in such terms.
What is clear however is the prevalence for violence as a means to resolve problems in this the various ethnically/culturally diverse groups. Since those who self-identify as ‘black’ are still a minority such an over-representation of perpetrators in (violent) crimes it is clearly a problem they have to deal with themselves.
And then we didn’t even touch on other non Caucasian groups who self-identify as belonging to a group rather than as Americans.
The same problems are now arising in Europe, where the various immigrants, even in the third generation, don’t identify as belonging to their chosen nation but to their country once some family member originated from.
All this is the result of the condescending attitude of the ‘intelligentsia’ who have this strange fascination of retaining cultural identity as a right, nay an obligation. By doing so, by enabling the schism of cultures they laid the ground stone for the present clash of cultures resulting in the atrocities taking place all over europe. This is going to get worse, as more completely adverse cultures are imported and still not properly integrated.

Today’s Climate Fraud Winners – Science News


Real Science

Science News is singing the praises of Al Gore’s sci-fi flick 10 years later, saying that Arctic ice is melting even faster than Gore predicted.

2016: Arctic summer sea ice may disappear as early as 2052. The top of the world could see its first iceless summer roughly a decade sooner than thought in 2006

Screen Shot 2016-04-28 at 8.38.05 PM

Screen Shot 2016-04-28 at 8.53.00 PM

Changing climate: 10 years after ‘An Inconvenient Truth’ | Science News

Gore actually predicted the Arctic would be ice-free by 2014. In climate math, 2052 is apparently a decade earlier than 2014.

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Gore: Polar ice cap may disappear by summer 2014

NASA predicted that the Arctic would be ice-free by 2012. In climate math, 2052 is apparently a decade earlier than 2012.

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The Daily Reporter – Google News Archive Search

Science News also forgot to mention that 40 years ago they were predicting a new ice age.

1975-03-01

March 1, 1975 | Science News

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https://www.sciencenews.org/sites/default/files/8983

They also forgot to…

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How does Antarctica influence the climate and weather in the rest of the world?

How does Antarctica influence the climate and weather in the rest of the world?

Antarctica is a continent, bigger than Europe, North America or Australia, and as such it doesn’t just have one climate zone, but several of which 100% is frozen year round.

The contribution to global weather is actually very small, Antarctic weather keeps itself to itself most of the time, there is a much greater influence from ocean currents than from atmospheric effects. This contributes to Antarctica being so cold, as the weather goes round and round the continent rather than spilling over to lower latitudes as the arctic weather systems do.

No sea-level influence at all in other words

Source

 

Genetically modified crops are safe, healthy, and good for the environment

Genetically modified crops are safe, healthy, and good for the environment

Advocates for genetically modified crops depict them as a futuristic boon to humanity and the environment. Opponents call them “Frankenfoods” and demand governments ban their use. What does the data tell us? According to a new review of a large number of studies from across the spectrum, the truth falls much closer to the position of the advocates:

Genetically modified crops on the market are not only safe, but appear to be good for people and the environment, experts determined in a reportreleased Tuesday.

But the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are not just asking people to take their word for it. They’re putting the evidence up on a website so skeptics — and they know there are plenty of them — can check for themselves.

NBC News listed the main conclusions from the report, and they all look like pluses:

  • There is no evidence of large-scale health effects on people from genetically modified foods
  • There is some evidence that crops genetically engineered to resist bugs have benefited people by reducing cases of insecticide poisoning
  • Genetically engineered crops to benefit human health, such as those altered to produce more vitamin A, can reduce blindness and deaths die to vitamin A deficiency
  • Using insect-resistant or herbicide-resistant crops did not damage plant or insect diversity and in some cases increased the diversity of insects.
  • Sometimes the added genes do leak out to nearby plants – a process called gene flow – but there is no evidence it has caused harm.
  • In general, farmers who use GM soybean, cotton, and corn make more money but it does depend on how bad pests are and farming practices.
  • GM crops do reduce losses to pests
  • If farmers use insect-resistant crops but don’t take enough care, sometimes pest insects develop resistance

The “report in brief” on the website offered more details on animal and human safety:

Comparisons with conventional breeding

The committee assessed detailed surveys and experiments comparing GE to non-GE crop yields and also examined changes over time in overall yield per hectare of maize, soybean, and cotton reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) before, during, and after the switch from conventionally bred to GE varieties of these crops. Although the sum of experimental evidence indicates that GE herbicide resistance and insect resistance are contributing to actual yield increases, there is no evidence from USDA data that the average historical rate of increase in U.S. yields of cotton, maize, and soybean has changed.

Human Health Effects

GE crops and foods derived from them are tested in three ways: animal testing, compositional analysis, and allergenicity testing and prediction. Although the design and analysis of many animal-feeding studies were not optimal, the many available animal experimental studies taken together provided reasonable evidence that animals were not harmed by eating foods derived from GE crops. Data on the nutrient and chemical composition of a GE plant compared to a similar non-GE variety of the crop sometimes show statistically significant differences in nutrient and chemical composition, but the differences have been considered to fall within the range of naturally occurring variation found in currently available non-GE crops. Many people are concerned that GE food consumption may lead to higher incidence of specific health problems including cancer, obesity, gastrointestinal tract illnesses, kidney disease, and disorders such as autism spectrum and allergies. In the absence of long-term, case-controlled studies to examine some hypotheses, the committee examined epidemiological datasets over time from the United States and Canada, where GE food has been consumed since the late 1990s, and similar datasets from the United Kingdom and western Europe, where GE food is not widely consumed. No pattern of differences was found among countries in specific health problems after the introduction of GE foods in the 1990s.

Will this put an end to the “Frankenfood” attacks? Don’t bet on it. Despite the potential for keeping both the amount and the strength of herbicides to a minimum, the opposition to GE food has developed into a self-sustaining denialism. The real genius of the National Academies was to make the data available under one umbrella site, which allows everyone access to the evidence and undercuts the more conspiracy-theory-minded opponents from dominating the discussion. Even that, though, won’t keep a significant subset of people from assuming that the corporations are trying to kill you, man. By feeding you more food with less herbicidal content, apparently.

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