Feminist activist women are masculinized in terms of digit-ratio and social dominance: a possible explanation for the feminist paradox
Guy Madison1*, Ulrika Aasa2, John Wallert1 and Michael A. Woodley1,3
1Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
3Center Leo Apostel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
The feminist movement purports to improve conditions for women, and yet only a minority of women in modern societies self-identify as feminists. This is known as the feminist paradox. It has been suggested that feminists exhibit both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with heightened masculinization, which may predispose women for heightened competitiveness, sex-atypical behaviors, and belief in the interchangeability of sex roles. If feminist activists, i.e., those that manufacture the public image of feminism, are indeed masculinized relative to women in general, this might explain why the views and preferences of these two groups are at variance with each other.